Robotics accurate movement using stepper motors

Robotics accurate movement using stepper motor

June 15, 2022by yongubox0


There is a shift in the world’s technology toward a digital future, where devices are challenging to build but easy to use. If you’ve ever wondered how we’ve become so reliant on digital technology, then a digital calculator is the perfect illustration.

Like any other digital device, a stepper motor is just a DC motor. The degree of movement you can get with a stepper motor is customizable. Instead of performing a whole spin, it might break it down into smaller ones.

You may give the Stepper Motor the instruction to maintain a particular position for the amount of time specified, or you can simply put a software with a programming algorithm to regulate how it moves. Robots with a limited range of motion benefit most from the employment of the stepper motor. Ordinary DC motors have the drawback of perpetual motion until the power is cut off. It leads to an endless loop of movement.

Robots that can fetch coffee may be built using an ordinary motor to move around, but a stepper controller is required to stretch its arms, grab a coffee, and deliver it safely. Using a regular motor to move a robotic arm can lead your coffee to spill onto the floor rather than your table.




Every motor works by converting electrical current into mechanical motion. A stepper motor, also known as a step motor, is so-called because it transforms electrical current into discrete steps of movement. Using these procedures, you may select the type of motion you want to use in your practice.

DC When a voltage is connected to the motor’s terminals, it begins to revolve constantly. Instead, stepper motors have many “toothed” electromagnets grouped around a central gear-shaped ferromagnetic material, making them different from other motors. Electrical power is supplied to the electromagnets through an external circuit, such as a microcontroller.

The driver transmits the electric pulses to the Stepper Motor, which response to these pulses by moving. The entire amount of rotation and movement is determined by the pulse frequency. The driver, who a person controls, determines the frequency, so you are in direct control of the movement.

The motor shaft’s rotation begins with electricity’s application to an electromagnet, which in turn magnetically attracts the gear teeth. To align with the first electromagnet, it is necessary to slightly displace the edges of the gear. As a result, the gear spins to align with the next electromagnet, which is switched on after the previous one has been shut off. Each of these rotations is referred to as a “step,” and a complete rotation consists of an integer number of steps. The motor may then be precisely rotated by this method.

Using a stepper motor, you’ll get lightning-fast response and acceleration. It has low rotor inertia that allows it to accelerate swiftly. Short and rapid movements can be accomplished using step motors.



Stepper motors can be either bipolar or unipolar, depending on their design.

Unipolar Stepper Motor: The two windings of a unipolar stepper motor are wrapped with center taps around 5 to 6 wires each. In order to change the direction of the magnetic field, a central tap is connected to the positive supply, and the windings’ terminals are grounded.

The top stator pole is considered the north pole because the current flows from one winding to a terminal, whereas the bottom stator pole is seen as a south pole because of the opposite direction in which the current flows. Power is applied sequentially to both windings to start the motor.

Bipolar Stepper Motor: In the same way as hybrid motors and bipolar permanent magnets, bipolar stepper motors may be driven.

Both windings are connected without using any center taps. Reversing the polarity necessitates a complicated driving circuitry, despite the simplicity of the motor’s external appearance. As a result, to regulate the polarity of each winding, an H-bridge control circuit is necessary.



The step motor’s accuracy is one of its most remarkable properties; stepper motors are highly reliable. However, much like any other human-created item, these have limitations. Precision isn’t flawless, and there’s a risk of a miscalculation. The accuracy of a standard step motor is three arc minutes (0.05°).

But the unique characteristic of stepping motors is that this inaccuracy does not increase exponentially. A conventional step motor moves one step at a speed of 1.8° 0.05° each revolution of the wheel. The identical motor will traverse 1,800,000° 0.05° if it climbs one million degrees. Errors do not build up over time. Pulse minus 0.005 typically represents the most common error rate. Regardless of the motor’s steps, the odds of making a mistake remain the same.



Stepper motors aren’t suited for every application, but they might be great under the proper circumstances. For starters, stepper motors have a constant rotational speed and a constant torque at a stop, making them ideal for applications requiring precise torque control. Stepper motors provide excellent speed control, accurate positioning, and movement repetition.

The lack of contact brushes in stepper motors also makes them exceptionally dependable, reducing mechanical failure and extending the motor’s operational life. Because the rotational speed is related to the frequency of pulse inputs, these motors may be employed in a broad range of applications and settings.

  • Regarding safety, it’s straightforward to put up, and it gives a lot of control over its movement.
  • Unless damaged in some way, stepper motors have a long service life.
  • When used as an excellent repeater, it can reproduce its movements to an extremely high degree of accuracy.
  • Compared to other motion control systems, stepper motors are incredibly cost-effective.
  • Overloading will not destroy a stepper motor, which is a crucial characteristic.
  • The operation is simple and intuitive.
  • The movement it gives is incredibly accurate.


Where can Stepper Motor be Used?

It can be used where any of the following is required:

● Systematic, high-frequency placement of preset step angles.

● In situations where stopping time is long, such as when adjusting the width of a vehicle, etc.

● In cases where stopping time is long, such as when changing the width of a vehicle, etc., varying loads.

● The positioning determines the division of one cycle.

● The operating system for a conveying shaft requires synchronization.



Stepper motors have a wide variety of applications; however, some of the more popular ones are as follows:

  • Textile machines
  • 3D printing equipment
  • Printing presses
  • Medical imaging machinery
  • Gaming machines
  • Welding equipment
  • Small robotics
  • CNC milling machines

Precise control of propellers, lasers, print heads, drawing tools, and other robotic components is required to drive the applications mentioned above. Engineers who create robotic systems rely on stepper motors because they offer the exact control and dependability they need.



Now, the growth of the robotics industry owes a significant amount of debt to the development of aluminum beginning in the middle of the 20th century and continuing ahead. The field of robotics would not be where it is now if it were not for the qualities of strength, durability, lifespan, portability, and flexibility offered by aluminum.

In addition to being utilized in various robotic components, aluminum is an essential component in the automated production process. Aluminum helps supply answers in situations where other materials cannot do so, ranging from small, machined parts to massive, automated machinery and even the robots employed to produce them.

YONGUBOX’s aluminum enclosures enable manufacturers and designers to get the most out of the goods and projects they are working on by maximizing their potential.


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