An Introduction to Different Types of Inverters
An inverter is an electrical device that changes DC into AC.
A power inverter’s usefulness in modern life cannot be overstated. Most of our work depends on electricity and electronic devices, so even a short blackout might have serious financial consequences. Inverters can have other, more valuable functions than just current transformation.
Inverters are brought into play whenever there is a regular interruption in the electricity supply. These are the most reliable backup power sources. Most houses run on alternating current (AC) because it is more reliable when transmitted from one building to another and experiences fewer voltage drops.
Inverters come in a wide range of styles, sizes, and manufacturers, all of which we stock. Many alternate choices are also accessible. It can be time-consuming to pick the best option from several viable alternatives. What works well for an ambulance may not be appropriate for a recreational vehicle; therefore, there is no such thing as the “best” inverter.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON OUTPUT CHARACTERISTIC
Three distinct categories of inverters are distinguished by their output characteristics.
Square Wave Inverter
This inverter has a square waveform voltage output. Since all appliances are made to work with a sine wave supply, this sort of inverter is the least popular. If we use a square wave to power a sine wave-based appliance, there is a risk that the device will malfunction or that we will incur significant losses. This inverter has a low price but sees limited use. It has a wide range of applications in simple tools that employ a standard motor.
Experts warn against using it since the voltage it produces ranges from 230 to 290 volts. However, square wave inverters don’t cause any problems for PCs and laptops. They have SMPS so that the current won’t mess with the system.
Modified Sine Wave Inverter
The waveform of a quasi-sine wave inverter, also known as a modified sine wave inverter, is more similar to a square wave, with an additional step added. Most devices can function normally when powered by a modified sine wave inverter, though the reliability of some may be diminished. These inverters may be the best option when dealing with larger projects with a lower priority on energy efficiency.
Sine Wave Inverter
The voltage has a sine waveform at the output, which is very close to the power grid waveform. Since sine wave is what all your appliances were made to operate on, this is the inverter’s most significant selling point. Personal computers, tablets, rechargeable batteries, vehicle charging stations, and small home hold water pumping motors are probably highly safe to use with the current from this sort of inverter. As a result, this is an ideal result that ensures the appropriate functioning of the machinery.
The formation and operation of pure sine wave Inverters are significantly more complicated pieces of electronic equipment than square and modified square wave inverters. Compared to a square wave inverter, this converter lowers current bill costs. In addition, the backup time is significantly longer than that of a square wave inverter. However, this category of inverters is prevalent in home and business settings despite their higher cost.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON INPUT SOURCE
Current Source Inverter
When the inverter’s input is a stable DC current source, we refer to it as a current source inverter. When the DC source has a high input impedance, the current source inverter receives a steady supply of “stiff” current. A heavy inductor or a closed-loop controlled current is typically employed to generate a steady flow of current. Because of this, the ensuing current wave is rigid and unaffected by the load. The inverter’s DC input state and the DC source’s voltage influence the AC output current.
Voltage Source Inverter
When a steady DC voltage is fed into the inverter, it is referred to as a voltage source inverter. A constant direct current voltage is used as the input to the voltage source inverter. It is possible to define a DC voltage source as “stiff” if its impedance is negligible. In reality, DC sources have a small but noticeable impedance. The voltage sources used by voltage source inverters are expected to have very minimal impedance. The DC input voltage and the inverter’s switching components’ states are the only factors affecting the AC output voltage.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LOAD TYPE
Single Phase Inverter
An inverter with a single phase output takes in DC current and produces a single phase current. Single-phase inverters have one phase in their output voltage/current, and their nominal frequency is either 50 HZ or 60 Hz. “nominal voltage” refers to electrical systems’ standard power supply voltage.
One option is directly achieving low nominal voltages via an internal transformer or buck-boost circuitry, whereas high nominal voltages need additional step-up transformers.
For small loads, a single-phase inverter is utilized. Single-phase electricity is the standard for most home and business loads. For this purpose, a single-phase inverter is used.
Single-phase power generation is inefficient and generates more heat than a three-phase inverter. As a result, heavy loads require three-phase inverters.
Three Phase Bridge Inverter
A three-phase inverter changes DC to AC in three phases. The three-phase electrical power provides three alternating currents equally spaced in phase angle. Each of the three waves is produced at the output of a 120-degree phase shift from the others, but their amplitudes and frequency are identical to load-related fluctuations.
A three-phase voltage inverter circuit can be built using different topologies.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON CONTROL TECHNIQUE
The AC output voltage is modulated in pulse width. To achieve this, we manipulate the length of time that switches are on and off. Two signals are utilized in the pulse-width-modulation technique. The switch’s gate pulse is derived from comparing these two signals. The term “PWM” refers to a variety of various approaches.
Single Pulse Width Modulation
In this controlling method, a single pulse is utilized per half cycle. The carrier signal is a triangle, and the reference signal is a square. A gate pulse is produced for the switches using a comparison between the reference and carrier signals. A reference signal’s frequency determines the output voltage’s cycle rate. The high harmonic content of the results is the main disadvantage of this method.
Multiple Pulse Width Modulation
The limitation of a single PWM is addressed by using multiple PWM. This technique uses several pulses to vary the output voltage throughout each half cycle. When the reference signal is compared to the carrier signal, the gate results and transmission rates can be adjusted by manipulating the carrier signal’s frequency. The modulation index controls the output voltage.
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
This method of control sees extensive use in the manufacturing sector. The above procedures use a square wave as their reference signal. However, this technique uses a reference signal as a sine wave. The reference is compared to the carrier triangle wave to create the gate pulse for the switches. As the sine wave’s amplitude changes, so do each pulse’s width. The modulation index can be used to adjust the RMS root mean square voltage of the sine wave output.
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